## Stopwatch, Thermometer, Voltmeter and Ammeter

In previous lesson, we have discussed micrometer. In this lesson, we will discuss a few more measuring instruments, namely: stopwatch, ammeter, voltmeter and thermometer. In stopwatch, we will discuss 2 types of stopwatch: the analogue stopwatch and the digital stopwatch. We will also discuss the sensitivity of stopwatches and how to take reading from a … Read more

## Micrometer Screw Gauge

In previous lesson, we have discussed vernier caliper. In this lesson, we will focus on micrometer, where we will discuss the sensitivity of micrometer, the label of the parts of a micrometer and the function of some of the parts. We will also discuss how to take readings from a micrometer such as how to … Read more

## Vernier Caliper

In previous lesson, we have discussed measurement, including error, consistency, accuracy and sensitivity. In this lesson, we will proceed to measuring instrument. In measuring instrument, we will cover vernier caliper, micrometer, stopwatch, ammeter, voltmeter and thermometer. In this lesson, we will focus on Vernier caliper, where we will discuss the sensitivity of vernier caliper, label … Read more

## Scientific Notation and Prefixes

In previous lesson, we have discussed the classification of physical quantities. In this lesson, we will continue our discussion on scientific notation and prefixes. Under prefixes, we will discuss how to use the scientific calculator to solve problems involving prefixes. We will also discuss the conversion of prefixes, including the conversion of the unit of … Read more

## Scalar Quantities and Vector Quantities

In previous page. we have just conclude our discussion on base and derived quantities. We will now shift our focus to scalar and vector quantities. Physical quantities can also be divided into scalar quantities and vector quantities. Scalar quantities are the quantities that have no direction whereas vector quantities are the quantities that have direction. … Read more

## Physical Quantities

Introduction to physics is the first chapter of SPM form 4 physics. It is one of the most important topics in SPM physics for what you learn in this topic is very useful in other topics. There are 4 main sub-topics in this chapter: Physical quantity, Measurement, Measuring instrument and Scientific investigation. Physical Quantity A … Read more

## Kegunaan Elektrolisis Dalam Industri

Proses elektrolisis digunakan dalam industri untuk Pengekstrakan logam Penulenan logam Penyaduran logam Penggunaan Elektrolisis dalam Pengekstrakan Logam Dalam industry, elektrolisis digunakan untuk mengekstrak logam-logam yang sangat reaktif seperti natrium, kalsium, dan aluminium. Pengekstrakan Natrium Rajah di bawah menunjukkan ilustrasi alat radas yang digunakan untuk mengekstrak natrium dengan menggunakan elektrolisis. Dalam proses ini, grafit (karbon) digunakan … Read more

## Pemilihan Nyacas – Jenis Elektrod

Bagi proses elektrolisis, elektrod yang digunakan boleh dibahagi kepada dua jenis Elektrod lengai Elektrod aktif Elektrod lengai ialah elektrod yang tidak akan mengambil bahagian dalam sebarang tindak balas kimia semasa elektrolisis. Contoh-contoh elektrod lengai ialah elektrod karbon dan platinum. Elektrod aktif pula ialah elektrod yang mungkin mengalami perubahan kimia semasa elektrolisis. Dalam proses elektrolisis, jika … Read more

## Pemilihan Nyacas – Kepekatan Ion Dalam Elektrolit

Kepekatan ion dalam suatu larutan elektrolit juga mempengaruhi pemilihan ion untuk dinyahcas semasa elektrolisis. Jika kepekatan suatu ion di dalam larutan elektrolit adalah lebih tinggi, ion itu akan dipilih untuk dinyahcas walaupun kedudukannya di siri elektrokimia adalah lebih tinggi berbanding dengan ion-ion lain yang hadir di dalam elektrolit. Contohnya, jika kepekatan ion bromida, Br–, adalah … Read more

## Pemilihan Nyacas – Siri Elektrokimia

Siri elektrokimia ialah satu senarai ion-ion positif dan negatif yang disusun mengikut tertib menurun bagi keupayaan menyahcas di elektrod semasa elelctrolisis. Susunan ion-ion dalam siri elektrokimia adalah seperti yang di tunjuk di bawah. Ion-ion dari kedudukan lebih rendah dalam siri eleltrokimia lebih mudah dinyahcas. Oleh itu, dalam proses elektrolisis, ion-ion berada di kedudukan lebih rendah … Read more